The Age of Ancients is an era in the lore of Dark Souls.
In the Age of Ancients the world was unformed, shrouded by fog. A land of gray crags, Archtrees and Everlasting Dragons.
In this era, the world was ruled by the Everlasting Dragons. Humans and other creatures have yet to make an impression upon the world. It was during this time that the Lord Souls were found, within the first flame. The three Lords that have found them (Nito, Gwyn and the Witch of Izalith) used them to challenge the Dragons, starting a very long and destructive war. However, there was a fourth Lord Soul, the Dark Soul, which was found by the Furtive Pygmy. There is no further knowledge of the Pygmy's actions.
The victory of the Lords in the war marked the end of the Age of Ancients and the beginning of the Age of Fire.